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Thank you for joining us. We're honored that you made it this far, Congratulations! We long to see your potentials, active participation and contribution in feeding our forum with restless flow of articles, periodicals, discussions, replies and more new posts about English Language. We accept new poems, songs, novels, plays, exams and lesson notes for both English Grammar and Literature. Vær så god.

Poem of the Year

PEACEMAKER

By: Jonathan Tafreg


Keep preaching your peace,

While people are fighting war,

One thing you don’t understand.


You want holy kiss,

Your mouth full of neither nor,

This too you don’t understand.


Your belly don’t miss,

You want us to suffer more,

But still you don’t understand.


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Administrator’s Profile

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Jonathan Tafreg is a Tanzanian poet, singer, novelist, linguist and a teacher. He was born in 1985 and studied Bachelor of Arts with Education from Teofilo Kisanji University and graduated in 2015. He has taught English language in different schools and colleges across the country and has written dozens of books and pamphlets about English Grammar and Literature. He is the Pioneer of Tafreg Heritage English Academy.

Hotline: +255759988648

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WHAT THE PAST HOLD IN THIS BRIGHTER FUTURE

Anne Stein
Anne Stein
JAF - Expert
JAF - Expert

Join date : 2019-05-05
Date of Birth : 1988-08-18
Age : 31
Current City : Oslo, Norway
Home Town : Bergen, Norway
Posts : 7
Points : 714

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Post by Anne Stein on Sun May 05, 2019 5:58 pm

The First Civilizations
The first civilizations formed on the banks of rivers. The most notable examples are the Ancient Egyptians, who were based on the Nile, the Mesopotamians in the Fertile Crescent on the Tigris/Euphrates rivers, the Ancient Chinese on the Yellow River, and the Ancient India on the Indus. These early civilizations began to form around the time of the Neolithic Revolution (12000 BCE).Rivers were attractive locations for the first civilizations because they provided a steady supply of drinking water and made the land fertile for growing crops. Moreover, goods and people could be transported easily, and the people in these civilizations could fish and hunt the animals that came to drink water. Additionally, those lost in the wilderness could return to civilization by traveling downstream, where the major centers of human population tend to concentrate.

WHAT THE PAST HOLD IN THIS BRIGHTER FUTURE River-and-delta-from-orbit

The Nile River and Delta. Most of the Ancient Egyptian settlements occurred along the northern part of the Nile, pictured in this satellite image taken from orbit by NASA.


Hydraulic Empires
Though each civilization was uniquely different, we can see common patterns amongst these first civilizations since they were all based around rivers. Most notably, these early civilizations were all hydraulic empires. A hydraulic empire (also known as hydraulic despotism, or water monopoly empire) is a social or governmental structure which maintains power through exclusive control over water access. This system of government arises through the need for flood control and irrigation, which requires central coordination and a specialized bureaucracy. This political structure is commonly characterized by a system of hierarchy and control based around class or caste. Power, both over resources (food, water, energy) and a means of enforcement, such as the military, are vital for the maintenance of control. Most hydraulic empires exist in desert regions, but imperial China also had some such characteristics, due to the exacting needs of rice cultivation. 

The only hydraulic empire to exist in Africa was under the Ajuran State near the Jubba and Shebelle Rivers in the 15th century CE.Karl August Wittfogel, the German scholar who first developed the notion of the hydraulic empire, argued in his book, Oriental Despotism (1957), that strong government control characterized these civilizations because a particular resource (in this case, river water) was both a central part of economic processes and environmentally limited. This fact made controlling supply and demand easier and allowed the establishment of a more complete monopoly, and also prevented the use of alternative resources to compensate. 

However, it is also important to note that complex irrigation projects predated states in Madagascar, Mexico, China and Mesopotamia, and thus it cannot be said that a key, limited economic resource necessarily mandates a strong centralized bureaucracy. According to Wittfogel, the typical hydraulic empire government has no trace of an independent aristocracy—in contrast to the decentralized feudalism of medieval Europe. Though tribal societies had structures that were usually personal in nature, exercised by a patriarch over a tribal group related by various degrees of kinship, hydraulic hierarchies gave rise to the established permanent institution of impersonal government. 

Popular revolution in such a state was very difficult; a dynasty might die out or be overthrown by force, but the new regime would differ very little from the old one. Hydraulic empires were usually destroyed by foreign conquerors.

    Current date/time is Tue Oct 22, 2019 8:20 pm